This is the length and breadth of the ancient Egyptian empire for most of its history.
The ancient Egyptians had a seemingly upside-down way of looking at their world: Upper Egypt was in the south and Lower Egypt in the north!
The Nile was the country's lifeblood, so they based their concepts of 'up' and 'down' in relation to the river. It enters the country from modern Sudan in the south and winds its way north into the Nile Delta before flowing into the Mediterranean Sea.
Because a river naturally flows from the top down, they regarded what we now call southern Egypt (the Nile Valley), as 'Upper Egypt', and today's northern Egypt (the Delta) was called 'Lower Egypt' was it was down river.
In fact, when the troops of Pharaoh Thutmose I marched into Syria in 1525 B.C., they were astounded to find the Euphrates River flowing 'backwards', from north to south.
This photo was taken from the International Space Station in August 2014.